By Howard Georgi

A high-level, rigorous, and technical therapy of recent particle physics, this e-book used to be written via a well known professor at Harvard collage. as well as its price as a textual content for complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars of physics, it additionally serves as a reference for execs. 1984 version.

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16) is an orthogonal transformation by which we can rotate the (a, b) vector into the φ0 direction. 15) transformation we can make the VEV real and positive. Thus, all we have done is to choose a convenient form for the VEV so that our original labeling of the fermion fields is consistent. 18) Of course, LKE (Φ) contains the kinetic energy term for the Φ fields. But for the moment we will concentrate on the terms that are quadratic in the fields. 19) are the W and Z mass terms we want, as we will soon see.

Figure 2-4: µ+ e+ .... e .. ..... ..... . . ...... ..... .... .... . . . .. .. .. ........ ...... Z0 . . . . ...... ... ..... + µ− Figure 2-5: But the neutral-current weak interactions also contribute, as seen in Figure 2-5. Indeed, when the total center of mass energy approaches the Z 0 mass, this becomes the dominant contribution to the amplitude. Eventually, this process should be one of the best sources of information about the Z 0.

24) is a sign of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At any rate, the decay π + → µ+ νµ is proportional to Fπ2 , and so Fπ can be measured. 25) us a special case of the general Goldberger-Treiman relation that works even better). The pion is a Goldstone boson in this model. 5 to see it directly. The Goldstone-boson directions are defined by Ta λ where λ is the VEV. In this theory, the isospin generators annihilate the vacuum, so isospin is not spontaneously broken and there is no scalar Goldstone boson.

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