By Andrew Porteous

This magnificent and highly-acclaimed dictionary comprises over 4000 in-depth entries on medical and technical terminology linked to environmental defense and source administration. moreover, it comprises a variety of illustrations, quite a lot of foreign case stories and large cross-references to steer the reader. the recent variation can be an important replace with 30% new fabric, extra illustrations and a tremendously extended checklist of suitable internet assets

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DIOXINS. Aggregate tax. A tax designed to: 1. Conserve virgin AGGREGATES and encourage RECYCLING and/or less wasteful uses. 2. Reduce the environmental impact of virgin/primary aggregate production and internalize the associated environmental costs. An example of how the concept can be expanded is provided by Friends of the Earth, who have stated that such a tax can be designed to: ᭹ ᭹ ᭹ ᭹ ᭹ ᭹ ᭹ reduce the inefficient use of this important non-renewable resource; increase efficiency by encouraging recycling, reuse and more durable designs; support other policy measures with similar aims through the price mechanism by internalizing many of the external costs of aggregate extraction that are not fully captured by regulation; allow a shifting of the burden off labour in the form of employer’s National Insurance Contribution (NIC) and onto another production factor in the economy (resource use) that has significant external costs in the short and long term; increase employment both in its own right (as shown by research carried out by Cambridge Econometrics for Friends of the Earth and Forum for the Future) and even more effectively when recycled through a reduction in employer’s NIC; reduce the environmental impacts of primary aggregates extraction by cutting output as recycling increases its share of total demand; complement rather than duplicate the landfill tax by increasing the comparative value of recycled aggregates and by reducing the production of potential landfill sites though quarrying.

The decomposition of organic matter (biomass) by bacteria adapted to these conditions (anaerobes) is the main natural source of atmospheric methane. Anaerobic (organisms) – organisms that can only survive in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion. This is the biological conversion of organic materials to methane & carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen. Although AEROBIC PROCESSES are almost always used for the reduction of BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) in organic effluents, interest in ANAEROBIC PROCESSES is growing, particularly for high BOD/COD wastes from industry.

Firstly absorption systems use no CFCs or HFCs, so are environmentally friendly; secondly they have very few moving parts and are consequently relatively easy to maintain. The chilling effect is produced in the absorption cycle by the evaporation of a fluid – the refrigerant – in the lower pressure side of a closed system. The refrigerant vapour is recovered by the absorbing action of a second fluid – the absorbent. In the higher pressure side of the system the absorbent 2 Abstraction containing the dissolved refrigerant is boiled, the refrigerant vapour and the absorbent being returned to the lower pressure side for further use.

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