By Pavel Novak

4 targeted evaluation chapters by means of various authors disguise low-head hydropower usage, consumption layout for ice stipulations, the interface among estuaries and seas, and polders.

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45 In order to increase the spilling capacity of the weir and to prevent an excessive rise in backwater Developments in hydraulic engineering–5 30 FIG. 15. 34 levels, the weir crest is usually well below the designed headwater elevation. Hence regulation by crest control gates is indispensable. If bottom outlets are also necessary, they alternate with the generating units. In the first stations of this type rim-generator tubular turbines were installed, as shown in Fig. 22, while later bulb-type sets were given priority (Fig.

23). If the attainable head makes the construction of a sufficiently high dam Water power development: low-head Hydropower utilization 31 FIG. 16. 35 possible, vertical-axis (conventional) aggregates can also be chosen (Fig. 47,48 Sealing problems, considered earlier as possible drawbacks of this arrangement, no longer exist. During periods when Q>Qp the headincreasing effect of the overflowing jet can be taken into account. The formula derived by the author gives, with fair approximation, the tailwater depression: (24a) where v is the mean velocity in the tailwater (after mixing), ve is the Developments in hydraulic engineering–5 32 FIG.

On the horizontal axis one year is shown; on the vertical axis both discharges and heads are indicated. With the help of the rating curve adapted to the station site, the duration curve of the water stages is established. The assumption of a perfect run-of-river operation leads to three consequences: (1) the natural stage duration curve becomes the tailwater duration curve after the completion of the plant; (2) the headwater elevation does not change; (3) the difference between the river flow and discharge utilized by the turbines is continuously spilled by the weir or other outlets for excess flow.

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