By Marie Siewierski

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Table 1 names only a few of the major sources, and outlines some of the procedures and/or categories that might b e monitored. TABLE 1 Ancillary exposure study sources Conventional Control Programs Comparative Studies, Control Groups Protective Devices, Maintenance Equipment and Method Modifications Booms, Nozzles, Shields, Wicks Closed Systems, Soil Incorporation Chemical and Mixture Changes Formulations, Dilutions, Adjuvants Harvest Exposure Pickers, Processors, Vendors Field Trials Research Methods, Commercial Scale Conventional control programs that are being conducted by either commercial growers o r institutional personnel provide good sources for comparative studies 33 of a v a r i e t y of methods, equipment, and p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s .

F. Durham a n d H . R . W o l f e , B u l l . WHO, 26(1962)75-91. 2 J . E . D a v i s , blimeograph a n d p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 . 21 EXTRANEOUS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TERRY D . S P I T T L E R , JAMES E. DEWEY and J O H N B . 7 SOURCES I n d i s c u s s i n g e x t r a n e o u s e x p o s u r e , we must come t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g as t o j u s t what i s meant by e x t r a n e o u s . I f w e assume t h a t e v e r y t h i n g b u t t h e major s o u r c e o f e x p o s u r e i s e x t r a n e o u s , t h e n we must d e t e r m i n e what i s t h e major s o u r c e .

Tests with fish, aquatic invertebrates,and birds determine effects on species w h i c h may be accidentally exposed. Wildlife field studies are sometimes run to more ac- curately assess what happens in an actual exposure situation. L n a study of th<-s type, rabbits and birds are housed in a field and oversprayed with a particu1;ir test material. tion. This is often a very valuable link from the laboratory to the field situa- By this time, considerable toxicity data are available. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE TESTS A s field efficacy tests and toxicity tests continue, it is determined how new prod- ucts are degraded or metabolized, in four main areas: soil.

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