By Jong-sung You
During this comparative, old survey of 3 East-Asian democracies, Jong-sung You explores the correlation among inequality and corruption within the nations of South Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. Drawing on a wealth of wealthy empirical learn, he illustrates the ways that monetary inequality can undermine democratic responsibility, thereby expanding the danger of clientelism and seize. Transcending the scope of corruption learn past financial development, this ebook surveys why a few international locations, just like the Philippines, have did not cut back corruption and advance, while others similar to South Korea and Taiwan were extra winning. taking into consideration elements reminiscent of the luck and failure of land reform, adaptations in social constitution, and business coverage, Jong-sung You offers a valid instance of the way comparative research will be hired to spot causal path and mechanisms in political technological know-how.
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State autonomy means the absence of state capture. e. e. the capture of a bureaucratic agency or bureaucratic process), it can take place without corruption and purely through influence. Indeed, the most powerful players in the private sector are more likely to be able to capture the policy process using their influence, while the less powerful players will be compelled to rely more on corruption in order to compensate for smaller influence. Hence, capture by the powerful interests will spread corruption among the entire private sector.
The clients of politicians are usually those individuals, organizations and businesses who want to exert influence on the formulation and implementation of government policies. The bulk of these clients seek to enhance their own private interests, although there can be public interest groups and individuals, as well. Some clients may attempt to exert influence purely by providing the politicians with relevant information about the policy issue of interest. Other clients may attempt to buy influence by providing the politicians with legal campaign contributions or even illegal contributions or bribes.
Under elite capture, policy-making and policyimplementing processes are significantly distorted by powerful private interests. The wealthy elite can employ two means of capture: influence and corruption. Hellman et al. (2000) distinguish between influence and state capture with regard to firm behavior. According to their definition, state capture addresses firms shaping and affecting the rules of the game through private payments to public officials and politicians, while influence means taking the same action without recourse to payments.