By Dennis Shasha, Philippe Bonnet

Tuning your database for optimum functionality capability greater than following a number of brief steps in a vendor-specific consultant. for max development, you wish a vast and deep wisdom of uncomplicated tuning ideas, the power to assemble facts in a scientific method, and the ability to make your approach run speedier. this is often an paintings in addition to a technological know-how, and Database Tuning: ideas, Experiments, and Troubleshooting concepts can assist you improve transportable talents that would let you music a wide selection of database structures on a mess of and working platforms. additional, those abilities, mixed with the scripts supplied for validating effects, are precisely what you must overview competing database items and to decide on the fitting one.

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If so, the first transaction adds the value of the item to inventory. Otherwise, abort the purchase application. 2. The second transaction subtracts the value of the item from cash. They find that the cash field occasionally becomes negative. Can you see what might have happened? Consider the following scenario. There is $100 in cash available when the first application program begins to execute. An item to be purchased costs $75. So, the first transaction commits. Then some other execution of this application program causes $50 to be removed from cash.

Degree 1 read uncommitted: Reads may read dirty data and will not be repeatable. Writes may not overwrite other transactions’ dirty data. 3. Degree 2 read committed: Reads may access only committed data, but reads are still not repeatable because an access to a data item x at time T2 may read from a different committed transaction than the earlier access to x at T1 . In a classical locking implementation of degree 2 isolation, a transaction acquires and releases write locks according to two-phase locking, but releases the read lock immediately after reading it.

Record-level locking will permit two different transactions to access different records on the same page. ” By and large this response is correct for online transaction environments where each transaction accesses only a few records spread on different pages. 8 shows. There are three reasons to ask for table locks. First, table locks can be used to avoid blocking long transactions. 11 illustrate the interaction of a long transaction (a summation query) with multiple short transactions (debit/credit transfers).

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