By Harry G. Byars

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8 A 81 B Localized Corrosion-Oil well tubing from a highly deviated well. Water collected and traveled along the lower side of the tubing in the deviated section of the well. A. External of a joint showing full penetration. B. Internal view of joint in "A'" Note the corroded groove. 42 CORROSION CONTROL IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION Pitting occurs when the corroding metal suffers metal loss at localized areas rather than over its entire surface. The entire driving force of the corrosion reaction is concentrated at these localized areas.

3 General Corrosion-Section of gas well flowline thinned along the bottom by corrosion where water flowed. Note that it appears, during the life of this line, there were two different water levels. 1 shows that localized corrosion's pits, groves, gouges, and crevices are the results of several different corrosion mechanisms or phenomena. Most of these occur frequently in oilfield environments. The configuration depends on the specific details of the environment. 7 show examples of pitting attack.

21 are examples of corrosion under deposits. Even tight, adherent scales can create problems if they form only in spots rather than uniformly over the metal surface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) thrive under scales, sludge, sand, formation solids, and other debris, creating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and causing localized pitting. 24 show the results of such bacterial activities. The line had been laid in a sandy area. Sand that had blown into the pipe during construction was not cleaned from the line before commissioning.

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