By A. W. Cox, Frank P. Lees, M. L. Ang

This file gathers jointly facts and data on classifying unsafe locations.IChemE, the establishment of Chemical Engineers, is the heart for chemical, biochemical and method engineering execs around the world. we're the middle of the method group, selling competence and a dedication to sustainable improvement, advancing the self-discipline for the advantage of society and helping the pro improvement of contributors. a few of the components we post in contain: -Safety within the approach industries - the BP approach safeguard series-Consultancy for chemical engineers-Project administration within the approach industries-Contract administration within the strategy industries - overseas sorts of agreement series-Communication talents for engineers

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OlA where A is cross-sectional area of pipe. IA where A is the cross-sectional area of the hole defined by the part of the circumference between adjacent bolts and by the thickness of the gasket. 2 Approximate correspondence between standard hole sizes and hole sizes used in fire and explosion model Equipnwnl Siandard hole Fire and explosion i;iodel sizes hole sizes Flange CAF section leak Valve Pump Leak on severe duty Leak from pump with mechanical seal, no throttle bush Leak Major leak Minor leak Minor leak Minor leak Small bore connection 40 Smaller leak <

For injury risk, the most usual approach is the use of a criterion of absolute risk. 2 is usually taken to be primarily that to workers on the plant and this approach is followed here, but it is for consideration how far risk to the public should also be taken into account. A criterion for risk to workers on a particular plant which has been in widespread use in the chemical industry for nearly two decades is the Fatal Accident Rate (FAR) (Kletz, 1971). The FAR is itself is defined as deaths per i08 exposed hours and is therefore simply another way of expressing the average annual risk to a worker.

The extent to which it can be handled by the dispersion models used here requires consideration. These aspects are considered in Appendix 9. 5 MODELS FOR EMISSION FROM FLANGES Most of the emissions scenarios considered involve emission from a more or less circular hole. For pipe flanges, however, the hole geometry is significantly different. These have therefore been given a separate treatment, which is described in Appendix 12. fl n n(. N P 1a 1e P1. 24) only) ratio of specific heats of gas i pressure ratio 1.

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