By Kolio D. Troev

Chemistry and alertness of H-Phosphonates is a wonderful resource for these making plans the synthesis of latest phosphorus-containing compounds and particularly derivatives containing a phosphonate, phosphoramide or phosphonic acid diester team. the wealthy chemistry, low-priced and simple availability of diesters of H-phosphonic acid makes them an exceptional selection as synthone in a couple of virtually vital reactions.Phosphonic acid esters are intermediates within the synthesis of vital sessions of compounds equivalent to alpha-aminophosphonic acids, bisphosphonates, epoxyalkylphosphonates, alpha-hydroxyalkylphosphonates, phosphoramides, poly(alkylene H-phosphonate)s, poly(alkylene phosphate)s, nucleoside H-phosphonates. The synthesis of every of those compound sessions is reviewed in detail.Alpha-Aminophosphonic acids are a tremendous type of biologically energetic compounds, that have bought an expanding quantity of cognizance simply because they're thought of to be structural analogues of the corresponding Alpha-amino acids. The utilities of alpha-aminophosphonates as peptide mimics, haptens of catalytic antibodies, enzyme inhibitors, inhibitors of cancers, tumours, viruses, antibiotics and pharmacologic brokers are good documented. Alpha-Hydroxyalkanephosphonates are compounds of vital organic and medicinal purposes. Dialkyl epoxyalkylphosphonates are of curiosity due to their use as intermediates within the synthesis of bioactive components, and as modifiers of usual and artificial polymers. Bisphosphonates are medicinal drugs which were regularly occurring in several bone illnesses, and feature lately been used effectively opposed to many parasites. Poly(alkylene H-phosphonate)s and poly(alkylene phosphate)s are promising, biodegradable, water soluble, new polymer-carriers of gear. Nucleoside H-phosphonates appear to be the main appealing applicants as beginning fabrics within the chemical synthesis of DNA and RNA fragments. The 5'-hydrogen phosphonate-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythimidine is among the most vital anti-HIV prodrug, that is at the moment in scientific trials.

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0 ppm for i-Pr) [105]. The final product is stable and does not undergo isomerization resulting in the formation of corresponding phosphates, as in the case of the -hydroxyethylamides of dialkylphosphates. This result indicates that the regioselectivity of this substitution (N–H versus O—H) correlates with the acidity of the corresponding protons. N-phosphorylated proteins and amino acids play important roles in the regulation of enzyme activity and protein biosynthesis [107,108]. The Atherton–Todd reaction is used for the convenient synthesis of N-phosphoryldipeptide acids.

Reactivity of H-Phosphonates ozone layer [121]. Chlorofluorohydrocarbons have been proposed as refrigerant substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons [122]. The latter molecules are considered environmentally less harmful because they contain a carbon–hydrogen bond that can be cleaved by chemical reactions at lower altitudes, thereby preventing the compounds from reaching the stratosphere. The Atherton–Todd reaction of halocarbons with dialkyl H-phosphonates is one potentially useful reaction that can be used to carry out such transformation under homogeneous conditions [123].

Depending on the molar ratio between H-phosphonate diesters and hydroxyl-containing compounds and the reaction conditions, the following products can be obtained: monotransesterificated product II [40,41]; cyclic phosphonates, 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, or 1,3,2dioxaphosphorinanes III [42,43]; dialkyl alkylene diphosphonates IV [39,44]; and bis( –hydroxyalkyl) phosphonates V [45]. Ethylene glycol [32,45], diethylene glycol [45,46], triethylene glycol [45–47], pentamethylene glycol [46], hexamethylene glycol [45,46,47–49], resorcinol [50], hydroquinone [48,51], pentaerytritol [49,52], glycerol [53], and diphenylpropanol [54] have been used as hydroxyl-containing compounds.

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