By Jordi Gual

This succinct survey contains crucial financial coverage concerns dealing with eu governments and enterprise as they try to revive progress to the region's flagging financial system. even though written often in a non technical type, the publication includes a number of the sharpest research on hand of the industrial difficulties presently dealing with Europe's coverage makers and is vital analyzing for tutorial or expert readers attracted to ecu fiscal improvement.

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Shugart, M. and J. Carey (1992), Presidents and assemblies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2 Improving the performance of the European social model: the welfare state over the individual life cycle as sa r l i n d b e c k Introduction Welfare state arrangements are more comprehensive in Western Europe, or Europe for short, than in other parts of the world. As a result, welfare state spending (including expenditures on education) typically hovers at around 25–35 per cent of GDP among European countries (gross figures, OECD, 2002).

This proposal is not very different from the proposal to elect the Commission president by a European Congress formed of representatives from national parliaments and from the European Parliament. However, it has the big advantage of flexibility over the latter. There is no actual need to have all parliamentarians at the same place when voting for the president. Moreover, the electoral college option allows an evolution of the system towards universal suffrage. This is exactly what happened in the United States, where state legislators initially elected the president.

This would be a version of the current Israeli political model in which, although the prime minister is elected for the whole legislature and cannot be ousted by the Knesset, his coalition can be voted down. In effect, this would be a form of presidential model. Let us now turn the discussion to the latter. A presidential model for Europe In a fully fledged presidential model, the Commission president, or part of the Commission (the president and a certain number of 26 G´erard Roland vice-presidents), would be directly elected by European citizens.

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