By Linda S. Costanzo

Thoroughly up-to-date for its Fourth version, BRS Physiology is a superb reduction for college students getting ready for the USMLE Step 1. The booklet concisely studies key physiological ideas and contains medical correlations all through to stress connections among uncomplicated body structure and scientific medication. a variety of illustrations, tables, and circulate charts aid scholars visualize fabric quick and reduction in long term retention. End-of-chapter USMLE-style questions and a finished end-of-book examination attempt the student's problem-solving abilities, and obviously defined solutions advisor the scholar during the right steps in reasoning. This variation beneficial properties elevated insurance of pathophysiology, new questions, and a brand new two-color layout and artwork.

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Extra resources for BRS Physiology (Board Review Series)

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The drug was perfectly safe in other breeds of dogs and in humans, and it was subsequently approved for human use. The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Dif cult to Interpret There are many reasons it is dif cult to carry out physiological experiments in humans, including variability, psychological factors, and ethical considerations. Variability Human populations have tremendous genetic and environmental variability. Although physiology books usually present average values for many physiological variables, such as blood pressure, these average values simply represent a number that falls somewhere near the middle of a wide range of values.

The circulatory system distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels. The nervous and endocrine systems PHYSIOLOGY ECOLOGY CHEMISTRY Atoms MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Molecules * FIGURE 1-1 Cells CELL BIOLOGY Tissues Organs Organ systems Organisms Levels of organization and the related elds of study Populations of one species Ecosystem of different species Biosphere Function and Process 3 Integumentary System Respiratory system Nervous system Circulatory system Endocrine system Digestive system Musculoskeletal system Urinary system Reproductive system * FIGURE 1-2 The integration between systems of the body.

Staying aware of the two approaches will help prevent confusion. Although function and process seem to be two sides of the same coin, it is possible to study processes, particularly at the cellular and subcellular level, without understanding their 1 4 Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology TABLE 1-1 Organ Systems of the Human Body SYSTEM NAME ORGANS OR TISSUES REPRESENTATIVE FUNCTIONS Circulatory Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport of materials between all cells of the body Digestive Stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas Conversion of food into particles that can be transported into the body; elimination of some wastes Endocrine Thyroid gland, adrenal gland Coordination of body function through synthesis and release of regulatory molecules Immune Thymus, spleen, lymph nodes Defense against foreign invaders Integumentary Skin Protection from external environment Musculoskeletal Skeletal muscles, bones Support and movement Nervous Brain, spinal cord Coordination of body function through electrical signals and release of regulatory molecules Reproductive Ovaries and uterus, testes Perpetuation of the species Respiratory Lungs, airways Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the internal and external environments Urinary Kidneys, bladder Maintenance of water and solutes in the internal environment; waste removal function in the life of the organism.

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