By Nenad Jovanovic

In Brechtian Cinemas, Nenad Jovanovic makes use of examples from choose significant filmmakers to delineate the diversity of the way within which Bertolt Brecht's inspiration of epic/dialectic theatre has been followed and deployed in overseas cinema. Jovanovic severely engages Brecht's principles and their such a lot influential interpretations in movie experiences, from gear conception within the Nineteen Seventies to the shortly dominant cognitivist strategy. He then examines a wide physique of movies, together with Brecht's personal Mysteries of a Hairdressing Salon (1923) and Kuhle Wampe (1932), Jean-Marie Straub and Daniele Huillet's History Lessons (1972), Peter Watkins's La Commune (2000), and Lars von Trier's Nymphomaniac (2013). Jovanovic argues that the position of montage--a imperative resource of inventive estrangement (Verfremdung) in prior Brechtian films--has reduced end result of the technique's conventionalization via modern Hollywood and similar industries. working as fundamental brokers of Verfremdung in modern motion pictures encouraged via Brecht's view of the area and the humanities, Jovanovic claims, are conventions borrowed from the most medium of his expression, theatre. Drawing upon an enormous variety of resources and disciplines that come with cultural, movie, literature, and theatre experiences, Brechtian Cinemas demonstrates a persevered and large relevance of Brecht for the perform and realizing of cinema.

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Indd 25 1/6/17 10:28 AM 26 Brechtian Cinema the mode of production (124). More succinctly, cinema can complement the unavoidable interpellation with its opposite: disinterpellation through distantiation, defined as a work of demonstrating contradictions (119)— fundamental elements of the real.  of the domination of reality” (123), a term Heath distinguishes from “Reality” (121), as the subject’s faulty impression of the real. Heath’s discussion of the three broad strategies used to achieve distantiation in film—(1) self-reflexivity; (2) montage; (3) theatricalization (narrative references to the medium and the use of its stylistic conventions)—collapses the distinctions between montage and the other two.

The reasons against that move have been explained. Despite the authority of Murray Smith’s deprecating assessment of Brecht’s legacy in cinema, the concepts of epic/dialectic theater continue to inspire film practitioners. Before looking at some examples in detail, Brecht’s own practical and theoretical dealings with the medium need to be examined. indd 32 1/6/17 10:29 AM 2 Brecht the Filmmaker The “Great Method” Adjusted A priori l’oeuvre de Brecht n’a pas affaire avec le cinema. Je dirais plus: elle repousse, elle refuse violement le cinema.

The other feature of Bruegel’s art that makes it “naïve” is its challenging of the rules of perspective as known in Western art since Brunelleschi. The combination of the perceptual cue lent by the title “The Fall of Icarus” and the high angle the canvas employs suggest a singular vantage point, but the pattern in which the depicted objects decrease in size with distance does not systematically follow linear perspective. The painting thus simultaneously uses and rejects the convention, combining contrasts at the levels of both subject matter and style in a manner that Brecht would qualify as dialectical.

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