By Leonard Warren

Sure carbohydrates are an enormous and interesting subject in biochemical and melanoma examine. according to a sequence of invited lectures, this booklet specializes in the distinct function that sure carbohydrates play in nature and replicate the author's extraordinary occupation in biochemical examine. another themes lined are the homes of membrane glycoproteins, considering the resistance of cells to medicines, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal function within the author's experiences. The publication chronicles just a few of the massive advances which have been made in biochemistry during the last few a long time.

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1992). In this instance, the tolerance for quantitative and probably qualitative change is extreme. It is apparent that the carbohydrates (and lipids) are not involved in acute functions, despite the specificity of structure and programed change in structure they may undergo. Rather, as will be discussed, the carbohydrates of glycolipids, in their variety, quantity and pervasiveness, must serve a low key background function, perhaps as a survival factor during evolution. The following hypothesis concerning glycoproteins is advanced to resolve this apparent contradiction.

D) Cartilage in vivo ( ); cartilage organ culture ( ). (e) Cartilage in vivo ( ); chondroblast pellet culture (- - -). (Taken from Cossu et al. (1982). /. Biol Chem. g. L-fucose or D-glucosamine) and the other culture is grown with the same sugar labeled with 3H. After incorporation over 15 h, cells containing the same amount of incorporated radioactivity are mixed and homogenized. The homogenate, or isolated glycoproteins from the homogenate, are exhaustively digested with pronase that destroys the polypeptide but leaves radioactive glycopeptides.

CMP-sialic acid can also be degraded by a hydrolase that is found largely, if not totally, in the surface membrane of the cell. The location of this degradative enzyme seems remarkable in view of the fact that CMP-sialic acid is made in the nucleus. The hydrolase is inhibited by CTP and other nucleotides. Sulfhydryl-containing compounds also inhibit the hydrolase, while they stabilize the CMP-sialic acid synthetase. UDP-Af-acetylglucosamine is also an inhibitor of CMP-sialic acid hydrolase. In addition, there are nucleotide pyrophosphatases that act upon other activated sugars with their own sets of regulating devices.

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