By Malachi D. Crawford

Black Muslims and the legislation: Civil Liberties From Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali examines the state of Islam’s quest for civil liberties as what may possibly arguably be known as the inaugural and primary sustained problem to the suppression of non secular freedom in African American felony background. Borrowing insights from A. Leon Higgonbotham Jr.’s vintage works on American slavery jurisprudence, Black Muslims and the Law unearths the kingdom of Islam’s strategic efforts to interact governmental officers from a place of energy, and indicates the federal government, congressmen, judges, attorneys, police officers, criminal directors, nation governments, and African American civic leaders held a standard knowing of what it intended to be and not to be African American and spiritual within the interval among international conflict II and the Vietnam warfare. The paintings increases easy questions about the rights of African descended humans to outline god, query white ethical authority, and critique the ethical legitimacy of yank battle efforts in response to their very own ideals and standards.

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Extra info for Black Muslims and the Law: Civil Liberties from Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali

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43 The movement of African Americans away from affiliating with traditional Black Christian denominations such as the Methodist and Baptist churches was not unique to the Nation of Islam. The spread of Islam among African Americans had been one of several new religious movements that emerged in urban areas during the early to mid twentieth century as alternatives to long-established Christian denominations who had—in some cases— actively discouraged African American southern migrants from becoming members.

Clegg, An Original Man, 35–36. 54. E. Curtis Alexander, Elijah Muhammad on African American Education: A Guide for African and Black Studies Programs, African American Educator Series, vol. 1 (New York: ECA Associates, 1989), 79. 55. Beynon, “The Voodoo Cult,” 898; Clegg, An Original Man, 290. 56. Clegg, An Original Man, 197. 57. , 39-40. Chapter Two Fighting in the Courts Early NOI Legal Defense In the time that elapsed between Fard Muhammad’s initial appearance in Paradise Valley, Detroit, Michigan, and Elijah Muhammad’s eventual imprisonment over a decade later, the NOI, originally called the Allah Temple of Islam, went through a transitional period of organizational instability and intense public ridicule behind its theological teachings and ritualistic practices.

3; “Atty. Westbrook Tendered Banquet,” New York Amsterdam News, June 28, 1941, p. 2, col. 8. 21. “Sedition, Draft Evasion Cases Up In Three Cities,” Chicago Defender, December 05, 1942, p. 1, col. 2; Foner and Garraty, Reader’s Companion, 215; Cornelius J. , An Introduction to Mennonite History: A Popular History of the Anabaptists and the Mennonites, 3rd ed. (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1993), 413; Clegg, An Original Man, 82–83. 22. Martin, Race First, 131; “Calls On Defender for Aid; Gets It In A Hurry,” Chicago Defender, October 20, 1917, p.

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