By Michael L. Shuler, Fikret Kargi
Bioprocess Engineering, moment Edition completely updates the top introductory textbook on biochemical and bioprocess engineering to mirror advances which are remodeling the sphere -- from genomics to mobile engineering, modeling to nonconventional organic structures. It introduces thoughts with huge applicability in prescription drugs, biologics, medication, environmental engineering, and past.
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The Eubacteria can be divided into several different groups. One distinction is based on the gram stain (developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884). The staining procedure first requires fixing the cells by heating. The basic dye, crystal violet, is added; all bacteria will stain purple. Next, iodine is added, followed by Sec. 1 Are All Cells the Same? cou 10/11/01 10:46 PM Page 16 the addition of ethanol. Gram-positive cells remain purple, while gram-negative cells become colorless. Finally, counterstaining with safranin leaves gram-positive cells purple, while gram-negative cells are red.
1 Are All Cells the Same? 7. Structure and asexual reproduction of molds. (With permission, from T. D. Brock, K. M. Brock, and D. M. , Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1986, p. ) 4. The deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti) cannot reproduce by sexual means. Only asexually reproducing molds belong to this category. Some pathogenic fungi, such as Trichophyton, which causes athlete’s foot, belong to the deuteromycetes. Molds are used for the production of citric acid (Aspergillus niger) and many antibiotics, such as penicillin (Penicillium chrysogenum).
Many proteins contain organic and/or inorganic components other than amino acids. These components are called prosthetic groups, and the proteins containing prosthetic groups are named conjugated proteins. Hemoglobin is a conjugated protein and has four heme groups, which are iron-containing organometallic complexes. 28 An Overview of Biological Basics Chap. 4 Page 29 Chemical Structure of 21 Amino Acids of the General Structure R Group Name —H —CH3 —CH(CH3)2 —CH2CH(CH3)2 —CHCH3CH2CH3 —CH2OH —CHOHCH3 —CH2SH —(CH2)2SCH3 —CH2COOH —CH2CONH2 —(CH2)2COOH —(CH2)2CONH2 —(CH2)3CH2NH2 —(CH2)3NHCNHNH2 Glycine Alanine Valine Leucine Isoleucine Serine Threonine Cysteine Methionine Aspartic acid Asparagine Glutamic acid Glutamine Lysine Arginine GLY ALA VAL LEU ILU SER THR CYS MET ASP ASN GLU GLN LYS ARG G A V L I S T C M D N E Q K R Histidine HIS H Phenylalanine PHE F Tyrosine TYR Y Tryptophan TRP W Proline PRO P Cystine — —CH2—S—S—CH2— Abbreviation Symbol Class Aliphatic Hydroxyl or sulfur containing Acids and corresponding amides Basic Aromatic Imino acid Disulfide The three-dimensional structure of proteins can be described at four different levels.