By Y.C. Fung

The conception of blood move is the oldest and such a lot complex department of biomechanics, with roots extending again to Huangti and Aristotle, and with contributions from Galileo, Santori, Descartes, Borelli, Harvey, Euler, Hales, Poiseuille, Helmholtz, and so forth. It represents an immense a part of humanity's notion of itself. This publication offers chosen issues of this nice physique of rules from a historic viewpoint, binding very important experiments including mathematical threads. The pursuits and scope of this booklet stay kind of like within the first version: to provide a remedy of circulatory biomechanics from the stand­ issues of engineering, body structure, and clinical technological know-how, and to strengthen the topic via a series of difficulties and examples. The identify is modified from Biodynamics: stream to Biomechanics: flow to unify the publication with its sister volumes, Biomechanics: Mechanical homes of residing Tissues, and Biomechanics: movement, move, tension, and development. the most important adjustments made within the new version are the next: while the 1st version went to press in 1984, the query of residual rigidity within the middle used to be raised for the 1st time, and the lung used to be the single organ analyzed at the foundation of reliable morphologic info and constitutive equations. The targeted research of blood move within the lung were performed, however the physiological validation experiments had now not but been completed.

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Rlt:E. ). '). fr~-t- A, it states that "(the blood and Chi) circulate without stopping. In 50 steps they return to the starting point. €Jiffii ). Chi(~) is a concept not familiar to Western thinking, but it was central to the Chinese idea of life. In the Chinese language Chi means gas; but it may also mean spirit(~~). When a man would rather die than surrender, 16 1. Physical Principles of Circulation you say he has Chi Tsi (~J[i). The physiological concept of Chi was derived from ancient Chinese experimentation on acupuncture.

The area within the loop describes the external work (stroke work) done by the left ventricle as it contracts. The lower curve of the loop, phase 1 (the arc AB in Fig. 4:4), represents the ventricular filling. During this period the heart is in diastole and the muscle is resting. The curve AB, therefore, should be the same as the pressure-volume (P-V) curve of a resting heart. Some deviation of the arc AB from the P-V curve of a resting heart occurs at the corners A and B owing to the dynamic events in the heart.

The Heart The reader might enjoy looking over the beautifully illustrated book by Frank Netter, Heart (1969). Details of the anatomy of the heart can be found in the Handbook of Physiology (Berne and Sperelakis, 1979). A tremendous store of information is in Braunwald (1988). 3 Electric System Since every contraction of the heart muscle needs an electric stimulation, the heart must have a center that generates a periodic electric signal which is conducted to every muscle cell. The main electric generating station of the heart lies in the sinoatrial node (S-A node; see Fig.

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