By Brigitte Voit, Rainer Haag, Dietmar Appelhans, Petra B. Welzel
This reference/text addresses recommendations and artificial concepts for the training of polymers for state of the art use in biomedicine, man made biology, and bionanotechnology.
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Extra info for Bio- and multifunctional polymer architectures : preparation, analytical methods and applications
Schrock (awarded with the Chemistry Nobel Prize 2005, shared with Y. Chauvin) led to the development of well‐defined transition metal a lkylidenes that rapidly outrivaled the traditional initiator systems. 23). “Schrock catalysts” are high oxidation state molybdenum (or tungsten) alkylidenes and are highly active in the ROMP of a vast variety of cyclic alkenes such as substituted norborn‐2‐enes, norbornadienes, 7‐oxanorborn enes, cyclooctatetraenes (COTs), and 1,4‐cyclooctadienes (CODs). The “living” polymerizations triggered by Mo‐bis(t‐butoxide)‐derived initiators usually lead to the formation of all‐trans, highly tactic polymers.
This correlates to primary biodegradation but takes into account that it depends on the environment when a substance can be considered as fully degraded. Ultimate biodegradation refers to the complete breakdown of a compound to either fully oxidized or reduced simple molecules (such as carbon dioxide/methane, nitrate/ammonium, and water). However, the in vitro degradability of a material by an isolated enzyme does not necessarily mean that it is also biodegradable in vivo, because the biodegradability of a substance strongly depends on the site and mode of action, for example, if it is used as a drug delivery agent, suture, or implant.
Similarly, the biodegradable polyesters polyglycolic acid and poly(ɛ‐ caprolactone), also used for implantable devices (degradation even slower than that of PLA), drug delivery, and suture materials, are prepared by CROP using stannous octanoate and other catalysts as cationic initiators . A further technically important polymer produced via cationic polymeriza tion is poly(ethylene imine) (PEI). PEI is polymerized from aziridine via pro tons (Fig. 15). It is a highly branched product due to chain growth also through the secondary amines, and it is used, for example, for paper treatment and coatings.