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1960). J. Biol. Chem. 235, 1809. Dunn, D. B. and Smith, J . O. (1955). Nature 175, 336. Dunn, D. B. and Smith, J . O. (1958). Biochem. J . 68, 627. Elson, D. and Chargaff, E. (1955). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 17, 367. Feingold, D. S. and Gehatia, M. (1957). J. Polymer Sei. 23, 783. , Staub, A. , Stirm, M. , Tinelli, R. and Westphal, O. (1958). Compt. Rend. 246, 2417. Ghuysen, J . M. (1961). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 47, 561. Grollman, A. P . and Osborn, M. J . (1964). Biochemistry 3, 1571. Hager, L.

There is a family of these acids with the general structure shown in Fig. 2. Mycolic acids were first isolated by Stodola et al. (1938) and have since been the object of Mycolic acid series n = l l or 13 Nocardic acid series Corynemycolic acid Mycocerosic acid F I G . 2. Structure of some fatty acids and alcohols isolated from acid fast bacteria and related species. Mycolipenic acid n = 20or 22 Phthiocerol Tuberculostearic acid Lactobacillic acid CiS'Vaccenic acid 32 BACTERIAL PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM 3 .

The backbone of the cell wall of gram positive bacteria appears to be a mucopeptide composed of N-acetyl glucosamine, muramic acid and amino acids. The amino acids identified in cell wall hydrolysates are glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, lysine or diaminopimelic acid, but not both, and occasionally serine. Much of the alanine and aspartic acid and all of the glutamic acid is present as the F I G . 10. Structure of muramic acid. D-isomer (Ikawa and Snell, 1960). Diaminopimelic acid is usually present as the meso or LL isomer (Hoare and Work, 1957).

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