By C. A. Benzo (auth.), P. D. Sturkie Ph.D. (eds.)

Since the booklet of prior variations, there was the recent variation has a few new individuals, a substantial bring up in study task ina quantity who've written at the fearful method, feel organs, of components, with every one succeeding version together with new muscle, endocrines, replica, digestion and immu­ chapters and a spread of data in older chap­ nophysiology. members from earlier versions ters. have multiplied their choices significantly. The fourth variation comprises new chapters, at the authors are indebted to numerous investigators, muscle and immunophysiology, the latter a space journals and books for the numerous illustrations used. Indi­ the place examine on Aves has contributed considerably vidual acknowledgement is made within the legends and to our basic wisdom of the topic. references. Preface to the 'Third variation because the book of the 1st and moment versions, pathways of birds and mammals. New members in­ there was a substantial raise of analysis activ­ clude M. R. Fedde and T. B. Bolton, who've com­ ity in avian body structure in a couple of parts, together with pletely revised and multiplied the chapters on respira­ endocrinology and copy, center and stream, tion and the worried method, respectively, and J. G. respiratory, temperature law, and to a lesser ex­ Rogers, Jr. , W. J. Mueller, H. Opel, and D. e. Meyer, who've made contributions to Chapters 2,16, 17, tent in another parts. There seemed in 1972-1974 a 4 quantity treatise and 19, respectively.

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The hypothalamic nuclei receive afferent input from various regions of the body and in turn have efferent connections with the thalamus, adjacent forebrain regions, and the autonomic nuclei of the brain stem and spinal cord. Important connections of the hypothalamus with the hypophysis that exist in the bird are considered in detail in other chapters in this volume (see also Berk and Butler, 1981; Kuenzel and van Tienhoven, 1982). The Midbrain Region. The avian midbrain is a complex region involved in orienting the bird's eyes, head, and body towards sights and sounds.

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Sharman (1970). The concentration of catecholamines in the brain of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). ]. , 40, 1. , and E. Mugnaini. (1975). The structural basis for electrotonic coupling in the avian ciliary ganglion. ]. , 4, 505. M. Bergland. (1957). Excitation and conduction in immature nerve fibres of the developing chick. ]. , 190,371. , and A. Demers. (1978). " New York: John Wiley and Sons. Clearwaters, K. (1954). ]. , 101,317. H. (1967a). Visual intensity discrimination in pigeons following unilateral and bilateral tectal lesions.

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