By Eva L. Feldman

The atlas is a accomplished define of neuromuscular ailments, written via skilled American and eu authors. It discusses all features of neuromuscular issues together with the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, motor neurone illness, the nerve plexus, peripheral nerves, mononeuropathies, entrapment syndromes, polyneuropathies, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle illness. each one bankruptcy is uniformly established into anatomy, indicators, symptoms, pathogentic chances, prognosis and differential analysis, treatment and diagnosis. also the diagnostic instruments and investigations utilized in neuromuscular affliction are defined and a realistic consultant is given the way to increase from indicators to syndromes. for every sickness the healing techniques are defined. It includes huge variety of scientific and histologic photos from the sensible event of the authors and in addition a few artists drawings to facilitate the knowledge of anatomic structures.

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In the majority of patients (in particular with generalized MG – about 90%) antibodies against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR) can be detected. The yield in ocular MG is lower (60–70%). There is a poor correlation between antibody titers and disease severity, but they have a high specificity for MG. About 10% of typical generalized MGs are seronegative; for these, the presence of anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MUSK) autoantibodies have been described. Striatal antibodies lack specifity for MG, but may be helpful in thymoma detection.

Trigger mechanisms can vary but are often specific movements such as chewing, biting or speaking. The neurologic examination is normal, and ancillary investigations show no specific changes. Vascular causes, like arterial loops in direct contact of the intracranial nerve roots, are implicated as causal factors. Therapies include medication (anticonvulsants), decompression or lesion of the ganglion, vascular surgery in the posterior fossa, and medullary trigeminal tractotomy. Symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia: May be caused by structural lesion of the trigeminal nerve or ganglion, by surgical procedures, tumors of the cerebellopontine angle, meningitis, and mutiple sclerosis.

MR spinal cord imaging has become the method of choice for degenerative disc disease, and is a valuable method to discriminate disk bulges and herniations. It is also used to show degenerative diseases of the facets and vertebral joints. Spinal stenosis, epidural abscess, or other spinal infections can also be detected, as well as arachnoiditis, neoplasms, and malformations. In some diseases, the paravertebral muscle may undergo changes that can also be seen with MR. Imaging of the spine and vertebral column MR neurography is becoming an important method to identify small focal lesions.

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