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15F. Suekane, ICRC talk July 98. 16Y. Totsuka, “Experiments for Solar Neutrinos and Supernova Neutrinos;’ m . Physics and Astrophysics of Neutrinos, M Fukugita, A. , (Springer Verlag: Tokyo, 1994) p. S. Raghavan, S. Schoene@ S. Enomoto, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, “Measuring the Global Radioactivity in the Earth by Muhidetector Antineutrino Spectroscopy;’ Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 80, Number 3, p. 635, (1998). 18C. Rothschild, M. Chen, F. gov/abs/nucl-ex/9710001, Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters, 15 Oct.

Suekane, “Status of the KamLAND Experiment”, Talk presented at Europhysics Neutrino Oscillation Workshop, (Now’98) 7-9 September 1998, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. itllngslhtextsllvdf. 15F. Suekane, ICRC talk July 98. 16Y. Totsuka, “Experiments for Solar Neutrinos and Supernova Neutrinos;’ m . Physics and Astrophysics of Neutrinos, M Fukugita, A. , (Springer Verlag: Tokyo, 1994) p. S. Raghavan, S. Schoene@ S. Enomoto, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, “Measuring the Global Radioactivity in the Earth by Muhidetector Antineutrino Spectroscopy;’ Phys.

Dopants such as gadolinium or chlorine that allow for neutron recovery could help reduce the background rate dramatically. GadoIinium is too expensive (- $100 per gram) to be feasible for large arrays, but detectors using chlorine salts would be less expensive. 5 tons of salt through a 1000 ton active medium (heavy water). If dopants can be used, detection of 1 kt tests at the 100 km range up to about 1000 km is limited primarily by three engineering obstacles. First, the cost of photomultiplier tubes is now around several hundred to a few thousand dollars per tube, while the number of tubes required for remote detection ranges from several hundred thousand to several billion or more.

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