By Xunwu Chen

One other Phenomenology of Humanity: A analyzing of A Dream of pink Mansions is dedicated to constructing one other model of phenomenology of humanity—human nature, human tendencies and human desires—by taking A Dream of pink Mansions, the crown jewel of chinese language tradition, as its major literary paradigm of representation. The model of phenomenology of humanity at factor is a synthesis of the Confucian, Daoist, Buddhist and Western existentialist phenomenological bills of humanity—for instance, what's humanity, what make people as human, human nature, human emotions, human wants, 3 middle human existential pursuits, and 4 uncomplicated difficulties of human life.

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Anthony C. Yu, Reading the Stone: Desire and the Making of Fiction in Dream of the Red Chamber (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); Yu, The Two Worlds of Hong Lou Meng (红楼梦的两个世界) (Shanghai, China:: Shanghai Social Science Academy Publishing House, 2006). 18. Liu, Understanding A Dream of Red Mansions, 125–26. 19. , 208. 20. , 213–16, 219. 21. Jeannie Jinsheng Yi, the Dream of the Red Chamber: An Allegory of Love (Paramus: Homa & Sekey Books, 2004), 1. 22. Sun Ai Ling (孙爱玲), The Humanistic Thought of Authenticity in A Dream of Red Mansions (《红楼梦》本真人文思想) (JiNan, China:: ChiLu Publishing House, 2007).

For humans, contingency is constitutive and defining of a person’s existence. Humans are not thinglike beings. For thing-like beings that have no self-consciousness, necessity or contingency is not an issue. In comparison, humans live in contingency and are aware of contingency as constitutive of their existence. They are aware of their tasks to engage contingency. How humans respond to contingency contribute importantly to define their fates. That is to say, the fate of a person, a family, a human community, or a nation-state has a great deal to do with contingency.

The concern of a self’s various constitutive relations involves concerns of the self’s social belonging—for example, familial or communal belonging—that are essential to a self’s belonging in the family called humankind In connection with above, self-alienation has three dimensions: (1) alienation from a self as the original primary substance; in alienation, one becomes a stranger to one’s self; (2) alienation from humanity as the secondary substance of all humans—that is to say, human alienation; in alienation, one becomes a stranger to one’s humanity, for example, when one turns oneself into a tool or thing in the world, one becomes a stranger to one’s humanity; and (3) alienation from one’s social relations that are constitutive of the self.

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