By International Atomic Energy Agency

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The energy of the emitted photons is specific for a given element, and their intensity depends on the concentration of that element in the sample. The range of photon energies covered by the XRF technique is from 1 to 50 keV for typical applications and may reach 150 keV for specific applications. 4 × 10–10 m in a typical case. An advanced EDXRF laboratory spectrometer utilizing a focused X ray beam has been used for the identification of individual particles. Microbeam XRF is a unique technique that can provide information on the distribution of elements within a heterogeneous specimen.

1. Schematic view of the microbeam XRF system. FIG. 2. Uranium rich and iron rich particles. Part II 41 Wegrzynek et al. FIG. 3. In situ element determination in soil by XRF spectrometry. FIG. 4. Pigment analysis with portable XRF spectrometer. Part II 42 Advanced X ray fluorescence techniques 100 Certified/recommended values Information values Given concentration (mass fraction) 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 Determined concentration (mass fraction) FIG. 5. Correlation between given and determined concentrations of elements.

5. Correlation between given and determined concentrations of elements. Part II 43 Radioisotopes for method validation V. KRIVAN, Sektion Analytik und Höchstreinigung, Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany M. ROSSBACH, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna Problem Validation of analytical methods is an obligation laid down in ISO Standard 17025, which provides general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The entire analytical process — from sampling, sample preparation and storage to the final determination of concentrations — is subject to quality control and validation.

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