By Stephan Bathe, Merle De Kreuk

Cardio Granular Sludge has lately acquired starting to be realization by means of researchers and know-how builders, around the globe. Laboratory stories and initial box try ended in the realization that granular activated sludge should be comfortably confirmed and profitably utilized in activated sludge vegetation, supplied "correct" technique stipulations are selected. yet what makes method stipulations "correct"? And what makes granules various from activated sludge flocs? solutions to those questions are provided in cardio Granular Sludge. significant issues coated during this publication comprise: - purposes and mechanisms of cardio granule formation - constitution of the microbial inhabitants of cardio granules - position, composition and actual houses of EPS - Diffusion drawback and microbial job inside granules - Physico-chemical features - Operation and alertness of granule reactors - Scale-up features of granular sludge reactors, and case reviews cardio Granular Sludge offers up to date information regarding a quickly rising new know-how of organic remedy.

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A. (1990) Fluorescent-oligonucleotide probing of whole cells for determinative, phylogenetic, and environmental-studies in microbiology. J Bacterial. 172(2), 762-770. , Kitayama, A. and Nagamune, T. (2000) Microbial ecology of nitrifying bacteria in wastewater treatment process examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. J Biosci. Bioeng. 90(3),234-240. A. J. (1999) Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch reactor. Water Res. 33(10), 2283-2290. , Helaine, D. and Martin, G. (1999) Controlling the settling of activated sludge in pulp and paper wastewater treatment plants.

2001). , 2003a). Hypothetically, this can be accompanied by the production of fermentation gases and organic acids, which can deteriorate or even destroy the granules. Therefore, the size of the granules must not exceed a threshold value to ensure long-term stability and high metabolic activity. Another structural property of microbial granules related to their bioengineering functions is the arrangement of granule components as radial sub-aggregates, spherical sub-granules and concentric layers.

3 cm/s (day 15 of reactor running) Aerobic granules formed under mixed carbon source During the running of R3, sodium acetate and sucrose were mixed as carbon source in the influent of the reactor. 6 mlIg while there was no filamentous organisms appeared (shown in figure 4). After then, the granulation of sludge still got well and there were no filamentous organisms existed in the whole operation. 9 kg COD/(Kg MLSS d). After the formation of aerobic granules with smooth surface and good settling, SLR was decreased with the increase of MLSS.

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