By H. Al-Megren

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The response of the TCD and FID were calibrated using a commercially-prepared gas mixture from Air Liquide. Considering the reproducibility of the gas chromatography measurements, the uncertainty in the calibration and the correction to eliminate the admixture of air, we estimated the accuracy in the composition measurement to be within ± 3 % of the molar fraction. 05 nmol for the hydrocarbons. Isotopic measurements were carried out with a gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometer (GC-IR-MS) at Isolab Laboratory, the Netherlands.

One of the popular concerns expressed about hydraulic fracturing is that the fractures may break upward into overlying aquifers, and contaminate groundwater with formation brines and dangerous chemicals. There are a number of physical reasons that make this highly unlikely; including the length of time the fracturing fluid is under pressure, the volume of fluid injected, the behavior of stress fields near the surface, and flow gradients once the well is in production. It is doubtful that the fluid will climb a mile or more against the force of gravity to contaminate a freshwater aquifer.

The depth at which a directional wellbore changes from vertical to some other orientation is called the kickoff point. The location in 3-dimensional space where the borehole is supposed to intercept the producing formation is called the target. The radius of the curve used to change the borehole direction from vertical to horizontal is called the build or the build rate. The horizontal stretch of the borehole is called the lateral. The path of the lateral through the target formation is called the trajectory.

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