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It is also pertinent to consider the necessity for including malevolent scenarios, including sabotage, among Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs). These scenarios could manifest themselves either as an internal event, or as an external event, or as a combination of both. 7]. 2. 6] makes the following stipulations in the context of combination of PIEs: “Where combinations of randomly occurring individual events could credibly lead to anticipated operational occurrences or accident conditions, they shall be considered in the design.
There is therefore, a need to define the scope of off-site emergency planning activities for advanced reactors, consistent with the ability of these reactor designs to meet enhanced safety objectives. This need also emerges from the study carried out in the context of modular high temperature gas cooled reactors (MHTGRs). 12], the following comments are made in this context: “For existing plants, the term ‘severe accidents” is widely associated with significant melting of the core and large releases of radionuclides from the reactor vessel.
Natural Events considered in several plants 5 EXTERNAL EVENT (EE) GROUP NAMES OF NPP DESIGNS IN WHICH NUMBER CONSIDERATION OF SOME PART OF THE EE GROUP IS EXPLICITLY MENTIONED IN THE DATASHEET CONSIDERED OF RELEVANT NPPS Earthquakes APR1400, EPR Finland, VBER-300 13 FNPP5, VVER 91/99, IRIS, PHWR540, ACR-700, SWR 1000, VK-300, ABWR-II, BN-800, AHWR, CHTR Extreme meteorological conditions (temperature, snow, hail, frost, subsurface freezing, drought). APR1400, EPR Finland, VVER 91/99, IRIS, PHWR-540, SWR 1000, VK-300, ABWR-II, BN-800, AHWR, CHTR 11 Floods (from tides, tsunamis, seiches, storm surges, precipitation, waterspouts, dam forming and dam failures, snow melt, landslides into water bodies, channel changes, work in the channel).