By Vivienne Saunders

Revised to mirror the wishes of present examination standards, this new variation provides an in depth account of the background of Black, Hispanic, local, and Asian Americans from the yankee Civil conflict onwards and illustrates the altering nature of the political, social, and fiscal struggles all through this era. specific awareness is paid to the function of people corresponding to Booker T. Washington, Harry Truman, and Martin Luther King, in addition to interpreting the jobs of presidency and different companies in influencing the alterations, growth, and regressions which signify this background of race kin. through the publication key dates, phrases, and matters are highlighted, and historic interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are integrated to consolidate wisdom and figuring out of the interval, and examination kind questions and assistance for every exam board give you the chance to enhance examination skills.

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Freed black slaves had acquired freedom of movement but because they lacked wealth most remained in the South and farmed. Most remained trapped in poverty, working as tenant farmers (sharecroppers) for the white élite in the economically backward South. Most sharecroppers produced cotton, but with the world glut in the 1870s, prices fell. Not surprisingly, Southern income was less than half that of the North. The lack of economic power kept Southern black progress slow. (b) The political position of blacks (i) Black voters and black officials After the Civil War, 700,000 blacks were registered to vote in the South, compared to 600,000 eligible whites.

The federal government in Washington wanted to concentrate on the North rather than racial problems in the South. • Republican voters were predominantly Northerners and Northerners were tired of the South’s ‘black question’. • Most Southerners and some Northerners believed that blacks were inferior and did not deserve equality. • Most Southerners either resented blacks as possible rivals for jobs or wanted to exploit blacks as cheap labour. • The Supreme Court did nothing to ensure that the 14th and 15th Amendments were made a meaningful reality.

Wells did not hold back when talking about the horrors of lynching, describing one in Paris, Texas, where the accused rapist was poked with red-hot irons for 50 minutes, doused with kerosene and set on fire. The accused then tried to get away from the fire and was put back in, twice. ’. (v) ‘The first step … is organisation’ Wells found all politicians unimpressive. ’. She was an enthusiastic supporter of T. Thomas Fortune’s National AfroAmerican League. ’ She wanted the League to boycott the segregated railroads, but was soon critical of League leaders: A handful of men, with no report of work accomplished, no one in the field to spread it, no plan of work laid out – no intelligent direction – meet and by their child’s play illustrate in their own doings the truth of the saying that Negroes have no capacity for organisation.

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