By Malcolm Offord

A pupil Grammar of French is a concise advent to French grammar, designed particularly for English-speaking undergraduates. retaining technical element to a minimal, it explains the basics of the grammar in available and easy phrases, and is helping scholars to place their studying into perform via various enjoyable and fascinating workouts. all of the crucial issues are coated, with chapters on verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, adverbs, negation, numerals, sentences, and clauses. each grammatical aspect is illustrated with a number of real examples drawn from magazines and newspapers, protecting many components of up to date lifestyles akin to type, well-being matters, relationships and recreation. it's essentially geared up right into a trouble-free, numbered indexing procedure, permitting the learner to speedy and simply find any grammatical subject. Functioning either as an critical reference advisor and a finished workbook, this grammar becomes definitely the right accompaniment to any first or moment 12 months undergraduate path.

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Extra info for A Student Grammar of French

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Those verbs with endings in –i– will be dealt with first, then those whose endings are in –u–. 82 Group 3 –re verbs with past historic endings in –i– singular –is –is –it plural –ˆımes –ˆıtes –irent Example of –re verbs with endings in –i– vendre 34 84 Group 3 –re verbs: past historic endings in –u– je vendis, tu vendis, il/elle/on vendit, nous vendˆımes, vous vendˆıtes, ils/elles vendirent Battre, perdre, r´epondre, rompre follow a similar pattern. 83 Group 3 –re verbs with stem variation conduire: the stem acquires an –s–, as follows je conduisis, tu conduisis, il/elle/on conduisit, nous conduisˆımes, vous conduisˆıtes, ils/elles conduisirent craindre, joindre and other verbs in –aindre/–oindre: the stem changes from –aind/–oind to –aign/–oign.

For other verbs in –voir see Subgroups 1 and 3. Example of Subgroup 2 voir je vois, tu vois, il/elle/on voit, nous voyons, vous voyez, ils/elles voient 42 –oir verbs Subgroup 3 As with Subgroup 7 of –re verbs, this subgroup contains a series of verbs that are very irregular in formation, and each of which has a distinctive conjugation for the present tense. The majority are very common. Examples of Subgroup 3 asseoir = to sit – this verb (normally pronominal) has two conjugations for the present tense, the first of which is the more commonly used – 15 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR 1 je m’assieds, tu t’assieds, il/elle/on s’assied, nous nous asseyons, vous vous asseyez, ils/elles s’asseyent 2 je m’assois, tu t’assois, il/elle/on s’assoit, nous nous assoyons, vous vous assoyez, ils/elles s’assoient avoir = to have j’ai, tu as, il/elle/on a, nous avons, vous avez, ils/elles ont devoir = to have to je dois, tu dois, il/elle/on doit, nous devons, vous devez, ils/elles doivent falloir = to be necessary – an impersonal verb used only in the third person singular – il faut pleuvoir = to rain – an impersonal verb used only in the third person singular – il pleut pouvoir = to be able to je peux (puis-je is used in the interrogative – see 161), tu peux, il/elle/on peut, nous pouvons, vous pouvez, ils/elles peuvent savoir = to know je sais, tu sais, il/elle/on sait, nous savons, vous savez, ils/elles savent valoir = to be worth je vaux, tu vaux, il/elle/on vaut, nous valons, vous valez, ils/elles valent vouloir = to want je veux, tu veux, il/elle/on veut, nous voulons, vous voulez, ils/elles veulent Imperfect tense 43 Using and forming the imperfect tense Usage As will be explained in 129, the imperfect tense has a number of functions – mainly to indicate the passage of time or the repetition of an action or event in the past.

For other verbs in –voir see Subgroups 1 and 3. Example of Subgroup 2 voir je vois, tu vois, il/elle/on voit, nous voyons, vous voyez, ils/elles voient 42 –oir verbs Subgroup 3 As with Subgroup 7 of –re verbs, this subgroup contains a series of verbs that are very irregular in formation, and each of which has a distinctive conjugation for the present tense. The majority are very common. Examples of Subgroup 3 asseoir = to sit – this verb (normally pronominal) has two conjugations for the present tense, the first of which is the more commonly used – 15 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR 1 je m’assieds, tu t’assieds, il/elle/on s’assied, nous nous asseyons, vous vous asseyez, ils/elles s’asseyent 2 je m’assois, tu t’assois, il/elle/on s’assoit, nous nous assoyons, vous vous assoyez, ils/elles s’assoient avoir = to have j’ai, tu as, il/elle/on a, nous avons, vous avez, ils/elles ont devoir = to have to je dois, tu dois, il/elle/on doit, nous devons, vous devez, ils/elles doivent falloir = to be necessary – an impersonal verb used only in the third person singular – il faut pleuvoir = to rain – an impersonal verb used only in the third person singular – il pleut pouvoir = to be able to je peux (puis-je is used in the interrogative – see 161), tu peux, il/elle/on peut, nous pouvons, vous pouvez, ils/elles peuvent savoir = to know je sais, tu sais, il/elle/on sait, nous savons, vous savez, ils/elles savent valoir = to be worth je vaux, tu vaux, il/elle/on vaut, nous valons, vous valez, ils/elles valent vouloir = to want je veux, tu veux, il/elle/on veut, nous voulons, vous voulez, ils/elles veulent Imperfect tense 43 Using and forming the imperfect tense Usage As will be explained in 129, the imperfect tense has a number of functions – mainly to indicate the passage of time or the repetition of an action or event in the past.

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