By Sjoerd L. Bonting (Eds.)

This primary quantity has contributions from the U.S. (4), the USSR (2), Europe (2), and Japan (1). They contain reviews of a primary organic challenge aided by way of a few house experiments, investigations of organic difficulties encountered in spaceflight, use of microgravity for a biotechnological objective, and technical amenities constructed for animal and telephone study in area. subject matters contain: the consequences of long term area missions at the human physique (Grigoriev, USSR); skeletal responses to microgravity (Morey-Holton an Arnaud, United States); gravity results on animal copy, advancements, and growing older (Miquel and Souza, Spain/United States); neurovestibular body structure in fish (Watanabe, Takabayashi, Tanaka, and Yanagihara, Japan); gravity notion and movement in crops (Brown, United States); improvement of upper vegetation below altered gravitational stipulations (Merkys and Laurniavcius, Lithunaia, USSR); gravity results on unmarried cells (Cogoli and Gmunder, Switzerland); protein crystal development in house (Bonting, Kishiyama, and Arno, United States).

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Abstracts, IAA-T-70. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, USSR, September 29-October 4, 1989. 36. C. Bone and Mineral Metabolism. In: Space Physiology and Medicine. 2nd ed. E. Nicogossian, C. L. ), pp. 214-221. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, London, 1989. 37. Balakhovsky, I S . K. Changes in Hemoglobin Mass during Real and Simulated Spaceflights. Kosmicheskuyu Biologiyu i Aviukosmicheskuyu Medizinu, 14(6):14-20, 1980 (in Russian). 38. P. Characterization of Structural and Functional Properties and Energy Metabolism of Erythrocytes in Spaceflights of Varying Duration.

In turn, the renal synthesis of the active derivative of vitamin D, which is regulated by parathyroid hormone, is reduced. 25-dihydroxyvitamin D/ parathyroid hormone axis maintains calcium homeostasis by actions on the kidney (reduction of the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium) and intestine (reduction of the intestinal 44 EMILY R. MOREY-HOLTON and SARA BOND ARNAUD I Figure 1. Hypothetical scheme of the effects of spacefight on calcium metabolism and bone mass. The two principal stimuli to the skeleton as a unit are reduced biomechanical stress and cephalad fluid shifts.

8. L. Experiment M-131: Human Vestibular Function. In: Biomedkal Results from Skylab. S. Johnston and L-F. ), pp. S. , 1977. 9. , Micahik, C. Psychic State and Performance. N. ), pp. 216-234. Nauka, Moscow, 1986 (in Russian). 10. A. Anthropometric Changes and Fluid Shifts. S. Johnson and LF. ), pp. 330-338. S. C.. 1W. 11. S. E. Adaptation of Posture Control to Weightlessness. fiperimpntal Brain Research. W61-72, 1984. 12. B. Neurophysiologid Effects Caused by Short- and Long-term Exposures in Microgravity.

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