By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli

This Italian reference grammar presents scholars, lecturers and others drawn to the Italian language with a complete, available and jargon-free advisor to the types and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of information of the language, novices of Italian will locate this ebook essential: it offers transparent and precise causes of every thing from the main uncomplicated evidence reminiscent of the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the types of the object, to extra complicated issues reminiscent of a number of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is amazing from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place acceptable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference device: large cross-referencing allows readers to quick locate the knowledge they require, and in addition stimulates them to find new, comparable proof.

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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)

Sample text

The suffix -ard was 38 The Vocabulary of Modern French very popular in the medieval period, giving rise to words which have unfortunately disappeared, like dormard ‘sluggard’ and mangeard ‘glutton’, but it has taken on a new lease of life in twentieth-century slang, as in chauffard, connard and motard. The Germanic suffix -enc (>-an) denoting origin, as in paysan, was less productive than -esc (>-ais/-ois), which fused with the Greco-Latin -isc and Latin -ensem. Germanic influence was even felt at the level of the phonological system.

As far as on-line databases are concerned, FRANTEXT constitutes the largest collection of mainly literary texts. It lends itself to historical, lexicological and literary research of all kinds. 9 New technology is having an even more revolutionary effect on our notion of what constitutes an encyclopedia, since CD-ROMs can now incorporate computer graphics, audio and film clips and music. ) Lexicography is clearly being revolutionised by modern technology. Access to the databases behind the modern dictionary means that the reader is no longer reliant on the lexicographer’s own choice of illustrative material.

Many borrowings like poema, philosophus, physica, were made to supplement literary, philosophical and scientific terminology and were confined, initially, to written Latin, whence they were borrowed into French (see next chapter). Direct borrowings from Greek into French are rare before the Renaissance, when the revival of interest in the arts, science and literature of classical antiquity led to the rediscovery of many Greek authors. The Old Testament was translated into Greek as early as the third century BC, while much of the New Testament and other Christian texts were written in Greek.

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