By Lisa Levenstein

During this daring interpretation of U.S. heritage, Lisa Levenstein reframes hugely charged debates over the origins of power African American poverty and the social guidelines and political struggles that ended in the postwar city problem. A move with no Marches follows terrible black ladies as they traveled from a few of Philadelphia's so much impoverished neighborhoods into its welfare places of work, courtrooms, public housing, colleges, and hospitals, laying declare to an unheard of array of presidency merits and prone. Levenstein uncovers the limitations that led ladies to public associations, emphasizing the significance not just of deindustrialization and racial discrimination but in addition of women's reviews with intercourse discrimination, insufficient public schooling, baby rearing, family violence, and protracted disorder. Women's claims on public associations introduced a number of new assets into bad African American groups. With those assets got here new constraints, as public officers usually answered to women's efforts by means of restricting merits and trying to keep watch over their own lives. Scathing public narratives approximately women's "dependency" and their kid's "illegitimacy" positioned African American girls and public associations on the middle of the turning out to be competition to black migration and civil rights in northern U.S. towns. Countering stereotypes that experience lengthy plagued public debate, A circulation with out Marches bargains a brand new paradigm for figuring out postwar U.S. background.

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Extra resources for A Movement Without Marches: African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia (The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture)

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Such policies also sometimes led men to become less involved in child rearing, exacerbated tensions in relationships, and forced marital separations. ∑≠ I focus on African American women rather than men because their demands on public institutions increased significantly during the postwar years. The unique struggles that led many women to turn to public institutions and the problems they faced while receiving government assistance provide an important window into the way that their experiences often di√ered from those of men.

Although they did not gain access to the upper echelon of municipal jobs (almost all city employees who earned more than $7,000 were white), those who secured city jobs frequently achieved upward mobility and job security, helping propel the growth of the African American middle class. ∂≠ Mrs. Elkins was one of the many African Americans who benefited from the 18 Introduction opening up of municipal employment. After the births of her sons, she taught herself to type and applied to work for the city.

Sanderson resolved that her son would receive an education at all costs. For Mrs. Elkins, her own employment history testified to the power of education. Her high school diploma enabled her to obtain a municipal job, and she wanted her sons to have access to similar opportunities. Mrs. Elkins and Mrs. Sanderson engaged in a great deal of deliberation before approaching other public institutions. After Mrs. Elkins left her husband, she considered applying for welfare, which would have enabled her to focus her attention on finding a new apartment and spend time helping her children adjust to their new living arrangement.

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